General-Purpose X-ray diffractometer DRON-8
General purpose X-ray diffractometer DRON-8 with vertical theta - theta goniometer and sample horizontal position enables to perform X-ray diffraction analysis of phase composition, structural state and orientation of heavy large-size and irregular-form samples.
Instrument DRON-8 has high technical and operational characteristics as compared with DRON-7 model being issued these days. Goniometer has a changeable radius (180-250 mm), angle position reproducibility is not more than 0.001 deg., automatic adjustment of the sample plane is provided; there are 6 algorithms for independent and synchronous moving of X-ray tube and detector that covers all known methods of XRD analysis. There is a number of options that are possible for DRON-7. Four-axles holder for large samples (xy-scanning, z-moving, φ-rotation) is added to allow to analyse large objects of different shapes (plates, single crystals and other odd-shaped samples) both for the analysis of their phase composition and structural state, and for control of their surface orientation in relation to the crystallographic axes.
Production of diffractometers DRON-8 started in 2010.
Vertical θ- θ
Raduis R, mm
Angular range, deg. 2θ
from -10 to 165 (up to 169 at R=200 mm)
from -5 to 165
from -5 to 95
θ-θ, θ, Ω, 2θ-Ω, Ѱ, sin
Min. scanning step, deg.
Scanning rate, deg./min
from 0.1 to 50
Travelling speed, deg/min
Recording system (base):
Counting rate, imp/sec
up to 500,000
High-voltage power source:
Power supply, kW
Anode current and voltage stability, %
X-Ray Tube (base):
10 х 1.6
water cooling (3 l/min)
Installation area, m 2
Power consumption, kVA
Overall dimensions (L х W х H), mm
1350 х 1200 х 2250
Sample stages, Attachments and chambers
Four-axis xyzφ stage for large samples to study bulk objects (up to 300 mm diam., up to 250 mm height and up to 50 kg weight) including oddly shaped samples with uneven surfaces, as well as for mapping of phase composition and structural characteristics across sample surface.
Two-axis χ,φ attachment for analysis of textures and residual stresses in polycrystalline samples and for the determination of crystal orientation up to 28 mm in diameter.
High-temperature chambers (up to 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2300°С) for in situ tracing of phase transformation and chemical reactions in changeable environment.
The vacuum system
Autosampler for 6 positions.
X-ray registration system based on linear position-sensitive stripped detector.
X-ray registration system based on solid-state energy-dispersive Peltier-cooled detector.
X-ray optical elements
Versatile primary beam monochromator.
Versatile diffracted beam monochromator.
Different types of crystals-monochromators (plane, asymmetric, curved, channel-cut) from different materials.
One-dimensional parabolic mirror for parallel-beam geometry.
а 4-bounce channel-cut monochromator (4 x Ge 220) on a primary beam singles out a monochromatic Kα1 line with anglular resolution of about 6” for high resolution geometry.
Channel-cut monochromator with variable (from 1 to 5) multiplicity on the primary beam singles out monochromatic Kα or Kα1 line . It is used for SAXS measurements and reflectometry.
Closed cooling system (chiller).
BSV- 27...29 and BSV-40...42 X-ray tubes with different of focus sizes and different anode materials.
Soller slits with divergence of 1.5 to 4 degrees for collimation of diffracted beam when point or position-sensitive detectors are used.
β-filters for monochromatization of various X-ray radiations when point or position-sensitive detectors are used. Process diagram Software
Data processing - DrWin
• Processing of diffraction pattern or selection
• Background approximation (by polynomial or user curve)
• Separation of K-doublets• Peak seach and determination of their anglular positions
• Approximation of reflection profiles by pseudo-Voigt function (for the entire array or independently for each peak)
• Calculation of peak heights and their integral intensities
• Calculation of FWHM of reflections
Quantitative phase analysis - Quan
• Overall analysis of multicomponent mixture
• Analysis of n-component system
• Analysis of sample with known mass absorption coefficient
• Method of internal standard
• Method of Reference Intensity Ratios (RIR’s)
• Method of additives
• Method of reduction
Calculation of average size of coherent domains and of microstrains - Size&Strain
• Calculation of size of coherent domains and microstrains by the method of second central moments
• Calculation of instrumental line broadening
• Application of absorption correction to the samples with another composition
Calculation of theoretical diffraction pattern - TheorPattern
• Simulation of diffraction patterns of multicomponent mixtures from structural data
• Account for of instrumental factor
• Account for texture and crystalline size for each component
• Comparison of simulated and measured diffraction patterns
• Integrated package of geometrical crystallography
Auto indexing of Powder Diffraction Pattern - Ind
• Determination of Bravais lattice type
• Choice of unit cell
• Computation of Miller indices for selected lines
• Bar graph of input diffraction pattern
Full profile analysis by Rietveld method - Rietveld
• Refinement of crystal structures from X-ray powder diffraction data of single crystalline phases and mixtures
• Calculation of polynominal and physical background
• Independent refinement of U, V, W, X, Y profile for different phases and for different groups of reflections
• Refinement of unit cell parameters, atomic and thermal parameters, occupations of atomic positions for each phase
• Choice of refinement strategy
• Control of Rrefinement conditions
• Calculation of five R-factors
Residual stress analysis - MacroStress
• Calculation of peak angular position from center of gravity or from peak topapex
• Correcting of correction matrix
• Calculation of linear, planar and volumetric stresses
• Calculation of stress deviations
High temperature-X-ray diffraction - Thermo
• 3D-imaging of measured data in “diffraction angle - intensity - temperature” co-ordinates
• Calibration of the measured data set by internal or external standard
• Refinement of unit cell parameters of the calibrated data set
• Determination of phase transition points
• Determination of thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) in different directions and thermal deformation tensors
• Building of TEC figures
Qualitative phase analysis and access to the Ppowder Diffraction File database - Retrieve and Search-Match
• Use of PDF-2/PDF-4 database of International Center of Diffraction< Data (ICDD) for qualitative analysis
• Automatic or manual search algorithm
Creation of user subbases for search facilitation
• Addition of user standards into subbases
• Qualitative phase analysis by different criteria, bases (subbases)
Analysis of lines matched by angular position and intensity
• Quantitative phase analysis by Reference Intensity Ratios (RIR’s) method
• Access to the data base including search by selected criteria